IDL

IVOLUME

IVOLUME

Please see VOLUME() which has replaced the functionality of the IVOLUME routine.

Note: If no arguments are specified, the IVOLUME procedure creates an empty Volume tool.

Note: IDL converts and stores volume data in a BYTE array. Thus, all incoming volume data is converted to BYTE type. This could alter the volume data values if the incoming data cannot accurately be stored as BYTE data.

Syntax


IVOLUME[, Vol0[, Vol1] [, Vol2Vol3]] [, AMBIENT=RGB vector] [, /AUTO_RENDER] [, BOUNDS=[xmin,  ymin, zmin, xmax, ymax, zmax]] [, CLIP_PLANES=array] [, COMPOSITE_FUNCTION={0 | 1 | 2 | 3}] [, EXTENTS_TRANSPARENCY=integer] [, DEPTH_CUE=[zbright, zdim]] [, /HIDE] [, HINTS={0 | 1 | 2 | 3}] [, INSERT_COLORBAR=value] [, /INTERPOLATE] [, /LIGHTING_MODEL] [, OPACITY_TABLE0=byte array] [, OPACITY_TABLE1=byte array] [, RENDER_EXTENTS={0 | 1 | 2}] [, RENDER_STEP=[x, y, z]] [, RENDER_QUALITY={1 | 2}] [, RGB_TABLE0=byte array] [, RGB_TABLE1=byte array] [, SUBVOLUME=[xmin, ymin, zmin, xmax, ymax, zmax]] [, /TWO_SIDED] [, VOLUME_DIMENSIONS=[width, height, depth]] [, VOLUME_LOCATION=[xyz]] [, /ZBUFFER] [, ZERO_OPACITY_SKIP={0 | 1}]

iTools Common Keywords

ASPECT_RATIO=value
ASPECT_Z=value
AXIS_STYLE={0 | 1 | 2 | 3}
BACKGROUND_COLOR=value
/CURRENT
CURRENT_ZOOM=value
DEPTHCUE_BRIGHT=value
DEPTHCUE_DIM=value
/DEVICE
DIMENSIONS=[x, y]
/DISABLE_SPLASH_SCREEN
/FIT_TO_VIEW
FONT_COLOR=RGB triple
FONT_NAME=string
FONT_SIZE=value
FONT_STYLE={0|1|2|3}
IDENTIFIER=variable
LAYOUT=[ncol, nrow, index]
LOCATION=[x, y]
MACRO_NAMES=strings
MARGIN=values
NAME=string
/NO_SAVEPROMPT
/NORMAL
OVERPLOT=iToolID
POSITION=[x0, y0, x1, y1]
RENDERER={0 | 1}
/STRETCH_TO_FIT
STYLE_NAME=string

TITLE=string
VIEW_GRID=[columns, rows]
/VIEW_NEXT
VIEW_NUMBER=integer
VIEW_TITLE=string
VIEW_ZOOM=value
WINDOW_TITLE=string
[XYZ]GRIDSTYLE={0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6}
[XYZ]MAJOR=integer
[XYZ]MINOR=integer
[XYZ]RANGE=[minmax]
[XYZ]STYLE={0 | 1 | 2 | 3}
[XYZ]SUBTICKLEN=ratio
[XYZ]TEXT_COLOR=RGB vector
[XYZ]TEXTPOS={0 | 1}
[XYZ]TICKDIR={0 | 1}
[XYZ]TICKFONT_INDEX={0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4}
[XYZ]TICKFONT_SIZE=float
[XYZ]TICKFONT_STYLE={0 | 1 | 2 | 3}
[XYZ]TICKFORMAT=strings
[XYZ]TICKINTERVAL=value
[XYZ]TICKLAYOUT={0 | 1 | 2}
[XYZ]TICKLEN=value
[XYZ]TICKNAME=string array
[XYZ]TICKUNITS=string
[XYZ]TICKVALUES=vector
[XYZ]TITLE=string
/ZOOM_ON_RESIZE

Arguments


Note: The volume data provided in the Vol0, Vol1, Vol2, and Vol3 arguments are scaled into byte values (ranging from 0 to 255) with the BYTSCL function to facilitate using the volume data as indices into the RGB and OPACITY tables. This scaling is done for display purposes only; the iVolume tool maintains the original data as supplied with the arguments for use in other operations. The minimum and maximum values used by the BYTSCL function may be adjusted in the volume’s property sheet. By default, the tool uses the minimum and maximum values of all volume parameters to uniformly byte-scale the data.

Vol0, Vol1, Vol2, Vol3

A three-dimensional array of any numeric type containing volume data. Arrays of strings, structures, object references, and pointers are not allowed. If more than one volume is specified, they must all have the same dimensions.

The number of volumes present and the value of the COMPOSITE_FUNCTION keyword determine how the volume data is rendered by the iVolume tool. The number of volume arguments determine how the src and srcalpha values for the COMPOSITE_FUNCTION are computed:

  • If Vol0 is the only argument present, the values of src and srcalpha are taken directly from the RGB and OPACITY tables, as indexed by each volume data sample:
  src = RGB_TABLE0[VOL0]        
  srcalpha = OPACITY_TABLE0[VOL0]        
  • If Vol0 and Vol1 are the only arguments present, the two volumes are blended together using independent tables:
  src = (RGB_TABLE0[VOL0]*RGB_TABLE1[VOL1])/256        
  srcalpha = (OPACITY_TABLE0[VOL0]*OPACITY_TABLE1[VOL1])/256        
  • If all the arguments are present, Vol0 indexes the red channel of RGB_TABLE0, Vol1 indexes the green channel of RGB_TABLE0, and Vol2 indexes the blue channel of RGB_TABLE0. The Vol3 argument indexes OPACITY_TABLE0:
  src = (RGB_TABLE[VOL0, 0], RGB_TABLE[VOL1, 1], $        
     RGB_TABLE[VOL2, 2])/256        
  srcalpha = (OPACITY_TABLE0[VOL3])/256.         

If all the arguments are present, the composite function cannot be set to the average-intensity projection (COMPOSITE_FUNCTION = 3).test for conditional text

Keywords


Note: Keywords to the IVOLUME routine that correspond to the names of registered properties of the iVolume tool must be specified in full, without abbreviation.

AMBIENT

Use this keyword to set the color and intensity of the volume’s base ambient lighting. Color is specified as an RGB vector. The default is [255, 255, 255]. AMBIENT is applicable only when LIGHTING_MODEL is set.

AUTO_RENDER

Set this keyword to always render the volume each time the tool window is drawn (the default behavior). Explicitly set this keyword to zero to disable automatic rendering.

BOUNDS

Set this keyword to a six-element vector of the form [xmin, ymin, zmin, xmax, ymax, zmax], which represents the sub-volume to be rendered. This keyword is the same as the SUBVOLUME keyword.

CLIP_PLANES

Set this keyword to an array of dimensions [4, N] specifying the coefficients of the clipping planes to be applied to this object. The four coefficients for each clipping plane are of the form [A, B, C, D], where Ax + By + Cz + D = 0. Portions of this object that fall in the half space Ax + By + Cz + D > 0 will be clipped. By default, the value of this keyword is a scalar (-1) indicating that no clipping planes are to be applied.

Note: Clipping planes are equivalent to the obsolete cutting planes. If defined, CUTTING_PLANES will be applied first, then the CLIP_PLANES (until a maximum number of planes is reached).

Note: A window is only able to support a limited number of clipping planes. Some of these clipping planes may already be in use by the tool to support specific data display features. If the total number of clipping planes exceeds the limit, an informational message is displayed.

COMPOSITE_FUNCTION

The composite function determines the value of a pixel on the viewing plane by analyzing the voxels falling along the corresponding ray, according to one of the following compositing functions:

  • 0 = Alpha (default): Alpha-blending. The recursive equation

dest' = src * srcalpha + dest * (1 - srcalpha)

is used to compute the final pixel color.

  • 1 = MIP: Maximum intensity projection. The value of each pixel on the viewing plane is set to the brightest voxel, as determined by its opacity. The most opaque voxel’s color appropriation is then reflected by the pixel on the viewing plane.
  • 2 = Alpha sum: Alpha-blending. The recursive equation

dest' = src + dest * (1 - srcalpha)

is used to compute the final pixel color. This equation assumes that the color tables have been pre-multiplied by the opacity tables. The accumulated values can be no greater than 255.

  • 3 = Average: Average-intensity projection. The resulting image is the average of all voxels along the corresponding ray.

This option (COMPOSITE_FUNCTION = 3) is not supported for 4-channel volumes.

The COMPOSITE_FUNCTION setting is used only when RENDER_QUALITY is set to 2 (High).

DEPTH_CUE

Set this keyword to a two-element floating-point array [zbright, zdim] specifying the near and far Z planes between which depth cueing is in effect.

Depth cueing causes an object to appear to fade into the background color of the view object with changes in depth. If the depth of an object is further than zdim (that is, if the object’s location in the Z direction is farther from the origin than the value specified by zdim), the object will be painted in the background color.

Similarly, if the object is closer than the value of zbright, the object will appear in its “normal” color. Anywhere in-between, the object will be a blend of the background color and the object color. For example, if the DEPTH_CUE property is set to [0, 1], an object at the depth of 0.0 will appear as a 50% blend of the object color and the view color.

The relationship between Zbrightand Zdim determines the result of the rendering:

  • Zbright < Zdim: Rendering darkens with depth.
  • Zbright > Zdim: Rendering brightens with depth.
  • Zbright = Zdim: Disables depth cueing.

You can disable depth cueing by setting zbright = zdim. The default is [0.0, 0.0].

EXTENTS_TRANSPARENCY

Set this keyword to an integer that specifies the percent transparency of the volume’s boundary wire frame or walls.

HIDE

Set this keyword to a boolean value indicating whether the volume should be drawn:

  • 0 = Draw graphic (the default)
  • 1 = Do not draw graphic

HINTS

Set this keyword to specify one of the following acceleration hints:

  • 0 = Disables all acceleration hints (default).
  • 1 = Enables Euclidean distance map (EDM) acceleration. This option generates a volume map containing the distance from any voxel to the nearest non-zero opacity voxel. The map is used to speed ray casting by allowing the ray to jump over open spaces. It is most useful with sparse volumes. After setting the EDM hint, the draw operation generates the volume map; this process can take some time. Subsequent draw operations will reuse the generated map and may be much faster, depending on the volume’s sparseness. A new map is not automatically generated to match changes in opacity tables or volume data (for performance reasons). The user may force recomputation of the EDM map by setting the HINTS property to 1 again.
  • 2 = Enables the use of multiple CPUs for volume rendering if the platforms used support such use. If HINTS is set to 2, IDL will use all the available (up to 8) CPUs to render portions of the volume in parallel.
  • 3 = Selects the two acceleration options described above.

INSERT_COLORBAR

If the newly-created visualization contains a color table (as specified by RGB_TABLE0, RGB_TABLE1, OPACITY_TABLE1, or OPACITY_TABLE2), then set this keyword to insert colorbars for the provided color tables. By default the colorbar will be stacked in the bottom center of the view. To manually position the colorbars, set this keyword equal to a 2-by-n array where each row contains the normalized X, Y position (0 to 1) specifying the location of the bottom left corner of the colorbar, in normalized coordinates.

INTERPOLATE

Set this keyword to indicate that trilinear interpolation is to be used to determine the data value for each step on a ray. Setting this keyword improves the quality of images produced, at the cost of more computing time, especially when the volume has low resolution with respect to the size of the viewing plane.

Nearest neighbor sampling is used by default.

LIGHTING_MODEL

Set this keyword to use the current lighting model during rendering in conjunction with a local gradient evaluation.

Note: Only DIRECTIONAL light sources are honored by the volume object. Because normals must be computed for all voxels in a lighted view, enabling light sources increases the rendering time.

OPACITY_TABLE0

Set this keyword to a 256-element byte array to specify an opacity table for Vol0 if Vol0 or Vol0 and Vol1 are present. If all the volume arguments are present, this keyword represents the opacity of the resulting RGBA volume. A value of 0 indicates complete transparency and a value of 255 indicates complete opacity. The default table is a linear ramp.

OPACITY_TABLE1

Set this keyword to a 256-element byte array to specify an opacity table for Vol1 when Vol0 and Vol1 are present. A value of 0 indicates complete transparency and a value of 255 indicates complete opacity. The default table is a linear ramp.

RENDER_EXTENTS

Set this keyword to draw a boundary around the rendered volume. The default (RENDER_EXTENTS = 2) is to draw a translucent boundary box. Possible values for this keyword are:

  • 0 = Do not draw anything around the volume.
  • 1 = Draw a wireframe around the volume.
  • 2 = Draw a translucent box around the volume

RENDER_STEP

Set this keyword to a three element vector of the form [x, y, z] to specify the stepping factor through the voxel matrix. This keyword is only valid if render quality is set to high (RENDER_QUALITY = 2). The default render step is [1, 1, 1].

RENDER_QUALITY

Set this keyword to determine the quality of the rendered volume. The default (RENDER_QUALITY = 1) is low quality. Possible values for this keyword are:

  • 1 = Low - Renders volume with a stack of two-dimensional texture maps.
  • 2 = High - Use ray-casting rendering, see the COMPOSITE_FUNCTION for more details.

RGB_TABLE0

Set this keyword to the number of the predefined IDL color table, or to either a 3 by 256 or 256 by 3 byte array of RGB color values to specify a color table for Vol0 if Vol0 or Vol0 and Vol1 are present. If all the arguments are present, this keyword represents the RGB color values of all of these volumes. The default is a linear ramp

RGB_TABLE1

Set this keyword to the number of the predefined IDL color table, or to either a 3 by 256 or 256 by 3 byte array of RGB color values to specify a color table for Vol1 when Vol0 and Vol1 are present. The default is a linear ramp.

SUBVOLUME

Set this keyword to a six-element vector of the form [xmin, ymin, zmin, xmax, ymax, zmax], which represents the sub-volume to be rendered. This keyword is the same as the BOUNDS keyword.

TWO_SIDED

Set this keyword to force the lighting model to use a two-sided voxel gradient. The two-sided gradient is different from the one-sided gradient (default) in that the absolute value of the inner product of the light direction and the surface gradient is used instead of clamping to 0.0 for negative values.

VOLUME_DIMENSIONS

A 3-element vector specifying the volume dimensions in terms of user data units. For example, specifying [0.1, 0.1, 0.1] would cause the volume to be rendered into a region that is 0.1 data units long on each side of the volume cube. If this parameter is not specified, the volume is rendered into a region the same size as the number of samples, with an origin of [0, 0, 0]. In this case, a volume with sample size of [20, 25, 20] would render into the region [0:19, 0:24, 0:19] in user data units. Use the VOLUME_LOCATION keyword to specify a different origin.

VOLUME_LOCATION

A 3-element vector specifying the volume location in user data units. Use this keyword to render the volume so that the first sample voxel appears at the specified location, instead of at [0, 0, 0], the default. Specify the location in terms of coordinates after the application of the VOLUME_DIMENSIONS values. For example, if the value of the VOLUME_DIMENSIONS keyword is [0.1, 0.1, 0.1] and you want the volume to be centered at the origin, set the VOLUME_LOCATION keyword to [-0.05, -0.05, -0.05].

ZBUFFER

Set this keyword to clip the rendering to the current Z-buffer and then update the buffer.

ZERO_OPACITY_SKIP

Set this keyword to skip voxels with an opacity of 0. This keyword can increase the output contrast of MIP (MAXIMUM_INTENSITY) projections by allowing the background to show through. If this keyword is set, voxels with an opacity of zero will not modify the Z-buffer. The default (not setting the keyword) continues to render voxels with an opacity of zero.

iTools Common Keywords

ASPECT_RATIO

A floating point value indicating the ratio of the Y dimension to the X dimension in data units. If this property is set to a nonzero value, the aspect ratio will be preserved as the visualization is stretched or shrunk. The default value is 0 for all visualizations except images, meaning that the aspect ratio is not fixed, but is allowed to change as the visualization is stretched or shrunk.

ASPECT_Z

For 3-D graphics, a floating point value indicating the ratio of the Z dimension to the X and Y dimensions, in data units. If this is a nonzero value, the aspect ratio will be preserved as the visualization is stretched or shrunk. The default value is 0, meaning that the aspect ratio is not fixed, but is allowed to change as the visualization is stretched or shrunk.

AXIS_STYLE

Set this keyword to one of the following values to specify the axis style.

0

No axes

1

Default Axes: at dataspace minimum values

2

Box axes: at dataspace minimum and maximum values

3

Crosshair axes: at dataspace median values

BACKGROUND_COLOR

Set this keyword to an RGB value specifying the color to be used as the background color for the view. The default is [255, 255, 255] (white). The BACKGROUND_COLOR keyword can be used when a tool is being created or when a new visualization is being created in an existing tool with the use of the OVERPLOT, VIEW_NUMBER or VIEW_NEXT keywords. The background color is applied to the current view. For example, if multiple views have been created with the VIEW_GRID keyword, and the VIEW_NUMBER keyword is used to create a visualization in the second view, use of the BACKGROUND_COLOR keyword would set the background color in the second view only.

CURRENT

Set this keyword to direct the graphical output of the visualization to a new data space in the current tool. If no tool exists, a new tool is created.

CURRENT_ZOOM

Set this keyword to the zoom factor to be used for the current view. The default value is 1.0, which represents 100%.

DEPTHCUE_BRIGHT

Set this keyword to a floating-point value giving the distance in the Z plane at which the objects in the view begin to fade into the background color. The values range from -1 (closest to the viewer) to +1 (farthest from the viewer). The default value is 0. See DEPTHCUE_DIM for examples.

DEPTHCUE_DIM

Set this keyword to a floating-point value giving the distance in the Z plane at which the objects in the view have completely faded into the background color. The values range from -1 (closest to the viewer) to +1 (farthest from the viewer). The default value is 0. Some usage examples are:

  • Zbright = Zdim

Depth cue is disabled and no fading will occur.

  • Zbright < Zdim

Objects farther than Zbright will begin to fade into the background, and objects farther than Zdim will be completed faded. This is useful for simulating fog.

  • Zbright > Zdim

Objects closer than Zbright will begin to fade into the background, and objects closer than Zdim will be completely faded. This is useful for simulating lighting at a distance.

DEVICE

Set this keyword if values are specified in device coordinates (pixels) for the POSITION keyword. (Normalized coordinates are the default for these keywords.)

DIMENSIONS

Set this keyword to a two-element vector of the form [width, height] to specify the dimensions of the drawing area of the specific tool in device units. The minimum width of the window correlates to the width of the menubar. The minimum window height is 100 pixels.

DISABLE_SPLASH_SCREEN

Set this keyword to disable the iTools splash screen. By default, the first time an iTool is run, the splash screen is displayed.

FIT_TO_VIEW

Set this keyword to automatically scale the newly-created visualization so that it fills the current view. This keyword is ignored if VIEW_ZOOM is present.

FONT_COLOR

Set this keyword equal to an RGB vector specifying the title text color. The default is [0, 0, 0] (black).

This keyword applies only to the text annotation created by the TITLE keyword. It is ignored if TITLE is not specified.

FONT_NAME

Set this keyword equal to a string specifying the name of the IDL or system font to use for the title text. The default is “Helvetica”.

This keyword applies only to the text annotation created by the TITLE keyword. It is ignored if TITLE is not specified.

FONT_SIZE

Set this keyword equal to an integer specifying the font size for the title text. The default is 16 pt.

This keyword applies only to the text annotation created by the TITLE keyword. It is ignored if TITLE is not specified.

FONT_STYLE

Set this keyword equal to an integer specifying the font style to be used for the title text. Allowed values are:

0

Normal (the default)

1

Bold

2

Italic

3

Bold Italic

This keyword applies only to the text annotation created by the TITLE keyword. It is ignored if TITLE is not specified.

IDENTIFIER

Set this keyword to a named IDL variable that will contain the iToolID for the created tool. This value can then be used to reference this tool during overplotting operations or command-line-based tool management operations.

LAYOUT

Set this keyword to a three-element vector [ncol, nrow, index] to arrange graphics in a grid. The first dimension ncol is the number of columns in the grid, nrow is the number of rows, and index is the grid position at which to place the graphic (starting at element 1). This keyword is ignored if either OVERPLOT or POSITION is specified.

LOCATION

Set this keyword to a two-element vector of the form [x, y] to specify the location of the upper left-hand corner of the tool relative to the display screen, in device units.

Note: Some X Window managers explicitly ignore any request from the client for window placement.

MACRO_NAMES

Set this keyword to a scalar string or an array of strings that specifies the names of one or more macros to run. The macro names are retrieved and the macros are run sequentially after the iTool and (if applicable) any visualizations have been created. If a macro of the specified name does not exist, IDL generates an error and the routine exits.

MARGIN

Set this keyword to specify the current graphic’s margin values in the layout specified by the LAYOUT keyword. Set MARGIN to a scalar value to use the same margin on all sides, or set MARGIN to a four-element vector [left, bottom, right, top] to specify different margins on each side.

Margin values are expressed in normalized units ranging from 0.0 to 0.5.

This keyword is ignored if either OVERPLOT or POSITION is specified. If the DEVICE keyword is used, the values are given in device units (pixels).

NAME

Set this keyword to a string to specify the name for this visualization.

NO_SAVEPROMPT

Set this keyword to cause the iTool not to prompt the user to save changes when closing the tool. The default is to prompt the user to save changes.

NORMAL

Set this optional keyword if input arguments are specified in normalized [0, 1] coordinates for the POSITION keyword. (Normalized coordinates are the default for these keywords.)

OVERPLOT

Set this keyword to an iToolID to direct the graphical output of the visualization to the tool specified by the provided iToolID.

Set this keyword to 1 (one) to place the graphical output of the visualization in the current tool. If no current tool exists, a new tool is created.

This iToolID can be obtained during the creation of a previous tool or from the iGetCurrent routine.

POSITION

POSITION is a four-element vector that determines the location of the visualization within the iTool window. The coordinates x0, y0, represent the lower left and x1, y1, represent the upper right corners of the data space. Coordinates are expressed in normalized units ranging from 0.0 to 1.0. If the DEVICE keyword is present, the units are given in device units (pixels).

Note: When using POSITION, factor in enough space to display the title and axis labels. For example, if you use POSITION to place your visualization at 0 on the X or Y axis, any labels for that axis will not be visible.

RENDERER

Set this keyword to override the value specified by the IDL_GR_WIN_RENDERER (Windows) or IDL_GR_X_RENDERER (UNIX) preference for the iTool. IDL will use the specified graphics renderer when drawing objects within the iTool window. Valid values are:

Value

Description

0

Use platform native OpenGL

1

Use IDL’s software implementation

If your platform does not have a native OpenGL implementation, IDL uses its own software implementation regardless of the value of this property.

STRETCH_TO_FIT

Set this keyword to indicate whether the visualizations should be stretched to fit within the view. The default value is 1 (True).

STYLE_NAME

Set this keyword equal to a string that specifies the name of a user-defined or a system style. If a style of the specified name does not exist, IDL generates an error and the routine exits.

The style is applied using the following rules:

  • If the tool exists and /OVERPLOT is specified, then the style is only applied to the newly-created visualizations within the current view. The current tool style is not updated with the new style, nor is the style applied to any other items within the view.
  • Otherwise, if the tool exists and either VIEW_NEXT or VIEW_NUMBER is being used to select a different view, then the style is applied to all items within that view. The current tool style is updated with the new style.
  • Otherwise, if a new tool is being created, then the style is applied to all items within all views. The current tool style is updated with the new style.

TITLE

Set this keyword to a string specifying a title for the newly-created visualization. The text annotation will be added to the dataspace containing the new visualization. If the TITLE is specified, you can also specify any of the FONT_COLOR, FONT_NAME, FONT_SIZE, and FONT_STYLE keywords to control the title appearance.

Note: Prior to IDL version 7.1, the TITLE keyword specified the title for the iTool window rather than for the visualization. Use the WINDOW_TITLE keyword to create a window title.

VIEW_GRID

Set this keyword to a two-element vector of the form [columns, rows] to specify the view layout within the new tool. This keyword is only used if a new tool is being created (for example, if OVERPLOT, VIEW_NEXT, or VIEW_NUMBER are specified then VIEW_GRID is ignored).

VIEW_NEXT

Set this keyword to change the view selection to the next view following the currently-selected view before issuing any graphical commands. If the currently-selected view is the last one in the layout, then /VIEW_NEXT will cause the first view in the layout to become selected. This keyword is ignored if no current tool exists.

Note: The contents of the newly-selected view will be emptied unless /OVERPLOT is set.

VIEW_NUMBER

Set this keyword to change the currently-selected view to the view specified by the VIEW_NUMBER before issuing any graphical commands. The view number starts at 1, and corresponds to the position of the view within the graphics container (not necessarily the position on the screen). This keyword is ignored if no current tool exists.

Note: The contents of the newly-selected view will be emptied unless /OVERPLOT is set.

VIEW_TITLE

Set this keyword equal to a scalar string that will be placed in a text annotation centered horizontally in the current view, near the top. The text will be created with the properties (size, style, color, etc.) defined for text annotations in the current tool style.

VIEW_ZOOM

Set this keyword to a floating-point number giving the initial view zoom factor. For example, setting VIEW_ZOOM to 2.0 would give an initial zoom of 200%. The default is 1.0.

WINDOW_TITLE

Set this keyword to a string to specify a title for the tool window. The title is displayed in the title bar of the tool.

[XYZ]GRIDSTYLE

The index of the linestyle to be used for plot tickmarks and grids (i.e., when [XYZ]TICKLEN is set to 1.0). See LINESTYLE for a list of linestyles.

[XYZ]MAJOR

Set this keyword to an integer representing the number of major tick marks. The default is -1, specifying that IDL will compute the number of tickmarks. Setting MAJOR equal to zero suppresses major tickmarks entirely. ZMAJOR is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]MINOR

Set this keyword to an integer representing the number of minor tick marks. The default is -1, specifying that IDL will compute the number of tickmarks. Setting MINOR equal to zero suppresses minor tickmarks entirely. ZMINOR is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]RANGE

Set this keyword to the desired data range of the axis, a 2-element vector. The first element is the axis minimum, and the second is the maximum. ZRANGE is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]STYLE

The axis range style. The valid values are:

(0) Set the axes to have a "nice" range (based on the tick marks). This is the default value for all visualizations except for Images and Maps.

(1) Force the axes ranges to exactly match the data. This is the default value for Images and Maps.

(2) Pad the axes to extend slightly beyond the "nice" range.

(3) Pad the axes to extend slightly beyond the exact data range.

The [XYZ]RANGE property takes precedence over this property.

[XYZ]SUBTICKLEN

Set this keyword to a floating-point scale ratio specifying the length of minor tick marks relative to the length of major tick marks. The default is 0.5, specifying that the minor tick mark is one-half the length of the major tick mark. ZSUBTICKLEN is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TEXT_COLOR

Set this keyword to an RGB value specifying the color for the axis text. The default value is [0, 0, 0] (black). ZTEXT_COLOR is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TEXTPOS

Set this keyword to control the position of axis text labels, including tick mark data values and axis titles. Possible values are:

0

Position text below a horizontal axis, or to the left of a vertical axis. This is the default.

1

Position text above a horizontal axis, or to the right of a vertical axis.

Note: The Z axis is treated as a vertical axis.

See [XYZ]TICKDIR to control the direction of axis tick marks.

[XYZ]TICKDIR

Set this keyword to control the direction of axis tick marks. Possible values are:

0

Draw the tick marks facing inwards.

For horizontal axes, this sets the TICKDIR property of the bottom axis to 0 and TICKDIR property of the top axis to 1.

For vertical axes, this sets the TICKDIR property of the left axis to 0 and TICKDIR property of the right axis to1.

This is the default.

1

Draw the tick marks facing outwards.

For horizontal axes, this sets the TICKDIR property of the bottom axis to 1and TICKDIR property of the top axis to 0.

For vertical axes, this sets the TICKDIR property of the left axis to 1 and TICKDIR property of the right axis to 0.

Note: The Z axis is treated as a vertical axis.

See [XYZ]TEXTPOS to control the position of tick mark data values and axis titles.

[XYZ]TICKFONT_INDEX

Set this keyword equal to one of the following integers, which represent the type of font to be used for the axis text:

  • 0 = Helvetica
  • 1 = Courier
  • 2 = Times
  • 3 = Symbol
  • 4 = Hershey

ZTICKFONT_INDEX is for three-dimensional plots only.

Tip: Available fonts also include any additional TrueType fonts available to IDL. Instead of using the [XYZ]TICKFONT_INDEX keyword, to access these additional fonts you may wish to create an iTools Style that sets the desired font for your axes.



[XYZ]TICKFONT_SIZE

Set this keyword to a floating-point integer representing the point size of the font used for the axis text. The default is 12.0 points. ZTICKFONT_SIZE is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TICKFONT_STYLE

Set this keyword equal to one of the following integers, which represent the style of font to be used for the axis text:

  • 0 = Normal
  • 1 = Bold
  • 2 = Italic
  • 3 = Bold Italic

ZTICKFONT_STYLE is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TICKFORMAT

Set this property to a string which represents a format string or the name of a function to be used to format the tick mark labels. TICKFORMAT can also be set to an array of format strings for each tick mark. If an array is provided, each string corresponds to a level of the axis. The TICKUNITS keyword determines the number of levels for an axis.

If the string begins with an open parenthesis, it is treated as a standard format string. If the string does not begin with an open parenthesis, it is interpreted as the name of a callback function to be used to generate tick mark labels. This function is defined with either three or four parameters, depending on whether TICKUNITS is specified.

If TICKUNITS are not specified:

  • The callback function is called with three parameters: Axis, Index, and Value, where:
  • Axis is the axis number: 0 for X axis, 1 for Y axis, 2 for Z axis
  • Index is the tick mark index (indices start at 0)
  • Value is the data value at the tick mark (a double-precision floating point value)

If TICKUNITS are specified:

The callback function is called with four parameters: Axis, Index, Value, and Level, where:

  • Axis, Index, and Value are the same as described above.
  • Level is the index of the axis level for the current tick value to be labeled. (Level indices start at 0.)

 

ZTICKFORMAT is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TICKINTERVAL

Set this keyword to a floating-point scalar indicating the interval between major tick marks for the first axis level. The default value is computed according to the axis [XYZ]RANGE and the number of major tick marks ([XYZ]MAJOR). The value of this keyword takes precedence over the value set for the [XYZ]MAJOR keyword.

For example, if TICKUNITS = ['S', 'H', 'D'], and TICKINTERVAL = 30, then the interval between major ticks for the first axis level will be 30 seconds.

ZTICKINTERVAL is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TICKLAYOUT

Set this keyword to integer scalar that indicates the tick layout style to be used to draw each level of the axis.

Valid values include:

  • 0 = The axis line, major tick marks and tick labels are all included. Minor tick marks only appear on the first level of the axis. This is the default tick layout style.
  • 1 = Only the labels for the major tick marks are drawn. The axis line, major tick marks, and minor tick marks are omitted.
  • 2 = Each major tick interval is outlined by a box. The tick labels are positioned within that box (left-aligned). For the first axis level only, the major and minor tick marks will also be drawn.

ZTICKLAYOUT is for three-dimensional plots only.

Note: For all tick layout styles, at least one tick label will appear on each level of the axis (even if no major tick marks fall along the axis line). If there are no major tick marks, the single tick label will be centered along the axis.

[XYZ]TICKLEN

Set this keyword to a floating-point value that specifies the length of each major tick mark, measured in data units. The recommended, and default, tick mark length is 0.2. IDL converts, maintains, and returns this data as double-precision floating-point. ZTICKLEN is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TICKNAME

Set this keyword to a string array of up to 30 elements that controls the annotation of each tick mark. ZTICKNAME is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TICKUNITS

Set this keyword to a string (or a vector of strings) indicating the units to be used for axis tick labeling. If more than one unit is provided, the axis will be drawn in multiple levels, one level per unit.

The order in which the strings appear in the vector determines the order in which the corresponding unit levels will be drawn. The first string corresponds to the first level (the level nearest to the primary axis line).

Valid unit strings include:

  • "Numeric"
  • "Years"
  • "Months"
  • "Days"
  • "Hours"
  • "Minutes"
  • "Seconds"
  • "Time" - Use this value to indicate that the tick values are time values; IDL will determine the appropriate time intervals and tick label formats based upon the range of values covered by the axis.
  • ""- Use the empty string to indicate that no tick units are being explicitly set. This implies that a single axis level will be drawn using the "Numeric" unit. This is the default setting.

If any of the time units are utilized, then the tick values are interpreted as Julian date/time values. Note that the singular form of each of the time value strings is also acceptable (e.g, TICKUNITS = 'Day' is equivalent to TICKUNITS = 'Days').

ZTICKUNITS is for three-dimensional plots only.

Note: Julian values must be in the range -1095 to 1827933925, which corresponds to calendar dates 1 Jan 4716 B.C.E. and 31 Dec 5000000 C.E., respectively.

[XYZ]TICKVALUES

Set this keyword to a floating-point vector of data values representing the values at each tick mark. If TICKVALUES is set to 0, the default, IDL computes the tick values based on the axis range and the number of major ticks. IDL converts, maintains, and returns this data as double-precision floating-point. ZTICKVALUES is for three-dimensional plots only.

[XYZ]TITLE

Set this keyword to a string representing the title of the specified axis. ZTITLE is for three-dimensional plots only.

ZOOM_ON_RESIZE

Set this keyword to 1 (True) so that visualizations change size when the window is resized. The default value is 0 (False), which ensures that visualizations remain the same size regardless of the window dimensions.

Examples


In the IDL Intelligent Tools system, data can be imported from the IDL Command Line (as described in Example 1), or data can be imported via the File menu in the iTool window (as described in Examples 2 and 3).

Example 1

This example shows how to use the IDL Command Line to bring data into the iVolume tool.

At the IDL Command Line, enter:

file = FILEPATH('clouds3d.dat', $        
   SUBDIRECTORY = ['examples', 'data'])        
RESTORE, file        
IVOLUME, clouds            

Derive an interval volume by selecting Operations > Volume > Interval Volume. In the Interval Volume Value Selector dialog, change the minimum value to 0.2 and the Decimate: % of original surface slider to 20, then click OK.

The following figure displays the output of this example:

Cloud Interval Volume iVolume Example

 

Example 2

This example shows how to use the iTool File > Open command to load binary data into the iVolume tool.

At the IDL Command Line, enter:

IVOLUME        

Select File > Open to display the Open dialog, then browse to find head.dat in the examples/data directory in the IDL distribution, and click Open.

In the Binary Template dialog, click New Field, and enter the following information in the New Field dialog:

  • Field Name:data (or a name of your choosing)
  • Type:Byte (unsigned 8-bits)
  • Number of Dimensions:3
  • 1st Dimension Size:80
  • 2nd Dimension Size:100
  • 3rd Dimension Size:57

Click OK to close the New Field dialog and the Binary Template dialog, and the image is displayed.

Select Operations > Volume > Isosurface, and insert an isosurface with a value of 60, decimated to 20% of the original surface.

The following figure displays the output of this example:

 

 

Example 3

This example shows how to use the File > Import command to load binary data into the iVolume tool.

At the IDL Command Line, enter:

IVOLUME        

Select File > Import to display the IDL Import Data wizard.

  1. At Step 1, select From a File and click Next>>.
  2. At Step 2, under File Name:, browse to find jet.dat in the examples/data directory in the IDL distribution, and click Next>>.
  3. At Step 3, select Volume and click Finish.

The Binary Template wizard is displayed. In the Binary Template, change File’s byte ordering to Little Endian. Then, click New Field, and enter the following information in the New Field dialog:

  • Field Name:data (or a name of your choosing)
  • Type:Byte (unsigned 8-bits)
  • Number of Dimensions:3
  • 1st Dimension Size:81
  • 2nd Dimension Size:40
  • 3rd Dimension Size:101

Click OK to close the New Field dialog and the Binary Template dialog, and the volume is displayed.

Select Operations > Volume > Image Plane to display a plane in the x-direction. Double-click on the plane to access its properties through the property sheet. Change the Orientation setting to Z. You can drag the image to see it at different z values by clicking on the edge of the image plane.

The following figure displays the output of this example:

 

 

Example 4

This example shows how to use a second volume argument to cut away a section of the first volume argument.

; First, load the MRI head data into IDL.  
file = FILEPATH('head.dat', SUBDIRECTORY = ['examples', 'data'])        
data0 = READ_BINARY(file, DATA_DIMS = [80, 100, 57])            
            
; Create the second volume that will cut away the upper 
; left corner of the head.        
data1 = BYTARR(80, 100, 57, /NOZERO) + 1B        
data1[0:39, *, 28:56] = 0B            
            
; Derive the color and opacity tables for the second volume.         
rgbTable1 = [[BYTARR(256)], [BYTARR(256)], [BYTARR(256)]]        
rgbTable1[1, *] = [255, 255, 255]        
opacityTable1 = BYTARR(256)        
opacityTable1[1] = 255            
; Display the two volumes. 
IVOLUME, data0, data1, RGB_TABLE1 = rgbTable1, $        
   OPACITY_TABLE1 = opacityTable1, /AUTO_RENDER            

IDL displays:

 

 

Example 5

This example shows how to use all of the volume arguments to display an RGB (Red, Green, Blue) volume.

First, create the volumes to contain primary colors (black, red, green, blue, yellow, cyan, magenta, and white) in each corner. At the IDL Command Line, enter:

vol0 = BYTARR(32, 32, 32, /NOZERO)        
vol1 = BYTARR(32, 32, 32, /NOZERO)        
vol2 = BYTARR(32, 32, 32, /NOZERO)        
vol3 = BYTARR(32, 32, 32, /NOZERO)        
vol0[0:15, *, *] = 255
vol1[*, 0:15, *] = 255        
vol2[*, *, 0:15] = 255        
vol3[*, *, *] = 128            
; Now, display the two volumes.  
IVOLUME, vol0, vol1, vol2, vol3, RGB_TABLE0=15, /AUTO_RENDER        

IDL displays:

 

 

Note: The white corner of this example volume is actually gray to distinguish it from the white background.

Version History


6.0

Introduced

6.1

Added BACKGROUND_COLOR, EXTENTS_TRANSPARENCY, MACRO_NAMES, and STYLE_NAME keywords.

6.1

Deprecated the CUTTING_PLANES keyword.

6.2

Added DISABLE_SPLASH_SCREEN and VIEW_TITLE keywords.

6.4

Added the ANISTROPIC_SCALE_2D, ANISTROPIC_SCALE_3D, FIT_TO_VIEW, INSERT_COLORBAR, RENDERER, SCALE_ISOTROPIC, and VIEW_ZOOM keywords.

7.1

Added the FONT_COLOR, FONT_NAME, FONT_SIZE, FONT_STYLE, WINDOW_TITLE, CURRENT_ZOOM, DEPTHCUE_BRIGHT, DEPTHCUE_DIM, STRETCH_TO_FIT, XMARGIN, YMARGIN, and ZOOM_ON_RESIZE keywords.

Modified behavior of the TITLE keyword to create a text annotation along with the visualization.

8.0

Added AXIS_STYLE, DEVICE, NORMAL, POSITION, [XYZ]TEXTPOS, [XYZ]TICKDIR, LAYOUT, and MARGIN keywords.

Deprecated XMARGIN, YMARGIN keywords.

8.1

Added ASPECT_RATIO, ASPECT_Z, [XYZ]STYLE.

Deprecated ANISOTROPIC_SCALE_2D, ANISOTROPIC_SCALE_3D, SCALE_ISOTROPIC keywords.

See Also


VOLUME



Notes


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